Plants of the Ohio-Erie Bike Trail, Cedarville, Ohio
Spring Wildflowers -- April-May*

I.    Woody Plants - Shrubs or Trees     [For Wildflowers (herbs), Go To II., below)

       A.     Shrubs - woody plants without one distinct trunk; multiple woody stems
                 Flower parts fused into slender tubes with lips - Shrub Honeysuckles (Lonicera sp.)

       B.    Trees - woody plants with distinct trunk supporting branches

                1.    White flowers in hanging clusters

                        a.     Flower clusters appear after leaves are well developed; flower petals
                                small, separate; arranged symmetrically around a center point,
                                each flower with 4 petals - Wild Black Cherry (Prunus serotina) Flowers
                                and familiar tent caterpillar webs.

                        b.     Flower clusters appear before leaves, giving the whole tree a
                                white appearance; flower petals fused into parts of different sizes;
                                bean-like flowers - Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)

                2.     Rose-purple flowers clustered along branches before the leaves appear, and
                        setting the tree ablaze with color - Red Bud  (Circis canadensis)

II.    Wildflowers (Herbs) -- Flowers 1/2 Inch Across or Less [See III. for Larger Flowers]

        A.     Flowers White

                1.    Petals Four

                      a.     Plants less than 6 inches tall, when flowering - Whitlow Grass(Draba verna)

                      b.     Plants usually over 6 inches tall when flowering

                              1.  Seed pods triangular in shape - Shepherd's Purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)

                              2.  Seed pods rounded with a small notch  Field Pennycress (Thlaspi arvense)

                              3.  Seed pods elongated, or absent in early stages of flowering:

                                    a.     Stem leaves narrow, clasping the stem - Hairy Rock Cress
                                                                                                                        (Arabis hirsuta)
                                    b.     Stem leaves broad, slightly triangular, sharply toothed -
                                                                                       Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata)

                              4.   Seed pods absent; tiny,narrow leaves whorled around the stem -
                                                                                       Cleavers (Bedstraw) (Galium sp.)

                2.    Petals five or ten

                       a.     Succulent leaves - Wild Stone Crop (Sedum ternatum)

                       b.     Leaves without hair- Corn Salad (Lamb's Lettuce), and Close-up
                                                                                                            (Valerianella olitoria)

                       c.     Petals five but notched deeply so as to appear as ten petals -- Chickweeds (Cerastium sp.)

    B.     Flowers Yellow

            1.     Small petals with prominent green center- Small-flowered Crowfoot
                                                                                      (Ranunculus abortivus)

            2.     Flowers violet-like - See below

    C.     Flowers Pink, Red or, Blue

            1. Flowers Pink or Red - plants growing erect (not creeping); leaves are opposite:

                    a.     Pinkish-purple, stalked leaves layered on top of plant - Purple Dead Nettle
                                                                                                                (Lamium purpureum)
                    b.     Top leaves are green, stalkless - Henbit  (Lamium amplexicaule)

            2. Flowers Blue - plants creeping horizontally:

                    a.     Four distinct petals, lower smaller than other three - Corn Speedwell
                                                                                                          (Veronica arvensis)

                    b.     Flowers with petals joined to form a tube with lips- Ground Ivy
                                                                                                          (Glechoma hederacea)

III.   Wildflowers (Herbs) -- Flowers More than 1/2 Inch Across

         A.    Flowers White

                1.     Petals five

                        a.     Violet-like flowers with toothed, spoon shaped leaves- Field Pansy
                                                                                                                  (Viola kitaibelliana)

                        b.     Leaves divided into groups of three; toothed margins - Wild Strawberry
                                                                                                                 (Fragaria virginiana)

                2.     Flowers daisy-like with pinkish-white "rays" surrounding a disk-like "head" of
                        tiny flowers -- Common Fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus) and Flower Close-up

        B.     Flowers Yellow

                1.     Flowers Dandelion-like or Daisy-like

                        a.     Characteristic dandelion-like flower and fluffy seedhead; 
                                basal leaves have "lion-like" teeth - Common Dandelion  (Taraxacum officinale)

                        b.     Flowers daisy-like with spoon shaped basal leaves -  Golden Ragwort
                                                                                                             (Pakera aurea) (formerly, Senecio aureus)

                        c.     Flowers as in "b." but with heart-shaped basal leaves - Round-leaved Ragwort
                                                                                                                   (Pakera obovata)  (formerly Senecio obovatus)
                2.     Flowers not Dandelion or Daisy-like; petals five

                        a.     Flowers violet-like; leaves/stems hairy (downy) - Downy Yellow Violet
                                                                                                            (Viola pubescens)

                        b.     Flowers have even sized petals with three-toothed green bracts extending
                                beyond petals - Indian Strawberry (Duchesnea indica)

        C.   Flowers Blue/Purple in color, violet-like

                1.     Flower stalks hairy; lower petal bearded - Northern Blue Violet
                                                                                        (Viola septentrionalis)

                2.     Flower stalks not hairy; lower petal unbearded - Common Blue Violet
                                                                                                    (Viola papilionacea)

        D.    Flowers Pink or Red

                1.     Plants usually less than one foot tall, leaves slender - Spring Beauty
                                                                                                         (Claytonia virginica)

                2.     Plants usually more than one foot tall

                        a.     Leaves have 3-5 lobes; toothed margins - Wild Geranium
                                                                                                (Geranium maculatum)

                        b.     Leaves have toothed margins; no lobes - Dame's Rocket (Hesperis matronalis)
                                             Photo: Richard A. Howard Image Collection, courtesy of Smithsonian Institution)

                3.     Plants with long narrow hollow leaves; pink or white flowers -  Field Garlic (Allium vineale)

        * Compiled by Janel Blackburn, Jared Mitchell, and John Silvius

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